We have provided a glossary for your use.  The travel industry is replete with jargon and acronyms and we hope you find this glossary/dictionary of travel terms useful when you run across a term you are not familiar with.  We encourage our clients to submit any words or concepts they would like defined or clarified to us on the Contact Us page and we will be happy to reply by email with a definition and include the term or clarification in our glossary/dictionary of travel terms for other clients benefit as well.

A la carte – referring to meals, an indication that each dish is priced separately; also that a choice of meals may be vailable, such as on a tour.

A la Carte Bar – Also known as a “Cash Bar,” a bar located within one’s hotel room that is pre-stocked with an assortment of snacks and beverages.

ABC – a reference to the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao, in the Netherlands Antilles, just off the northern coast of South America (Venezuela). Fabulous for diving, snorkeling and all manner of watersports.

Abeam – A directional term, used on ships and aircraft, which describes something off to the side of the vessel, such as the wings.

Accessible Tourism – Travel that ensures that there is high availability in destinations, accommodations, attractions, products, and services to all people.

Accessible Travel – Travel that ensures that there is high availability in destinations, accommodations, attractions, products, and services to all people.

Actual Time of Arrival – Literally, the actual time of arrival. As opposed to the ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival).

Add-on – an option, usually at extra cost, added to travel arrangements.

Adjoining rooms – Two hotel or accommodation rooms that have a door connecting them from the inside, allowing the guests to combine the two rooms into one larger room.

Adoption Rate – the percentage of tickets issued through an online booking system compared to the traditional booking channel of agent-assisted reservations.

ADT – Atlantic Daylight Time; Alaska Daylight Time.
Advance Purchase Fare – airfare that requires the traveler to purchase the ticket a minimum number of days prior to departure.

Advance Purchase Requirement – APR, or Advance Purchase Requirement, is the requirement that a ticket must be purchased a minimum number of days before the flight departs.

Adventure tour – A tour designed around an adventurous activity such as rafting, hiking, or mountain climbing.

Adventure travel – adventure travel is category of travel involving exploration or travel with perceived (and possibly actual) risk, and potentially requiring specialized skills and physical exertion.

Adventure Traveler – Adventure travelers travel to destinations with the specific purpose of active physical participation and exploration of new experiences.

Affinity Card – These are credit or debit cards issued by a banking institution in partnership and co-branded with a particular frequent traveler program.

Affinity group – A group of people that share a common hobby, interest, or activity, or that are united through regular participation in shared outings. Also see preformed group.

Aft – toward the rear of a ship.

After-departure charge – Charges that do not appear on the guest’s bill at checkout such as telephone or dining charges.

Agent – A person who has the power to act as the representative for another person.  Most frequently in travel, a specific kind of agent such as a travel agent.

AIO variables – Activities, interests, and opinions-used to measure and categorize customer lifestyles.

Air mile – a distance of approx. 6076 feet.

Air Traffic Control – Usually refers to the control tower at the airport, but may also be a control center somewhere else in charge of controlling a large area of sky.

Air Travel Card – a credit card sponsored by the airlines, for the purchase of air travel only.

Air Travel – air travel is the action or process of making a journey by aircraft.

Air/sea – a term referring to tickets, trips, fares, etc. that include both air and land-based travel arrangements, such as a cruise package with air included.

Aircraft – Generally speaking, any machine capable of flight. However, in the travel industry, these often mean airplanes.

Airline Alliance – These are agreements of cooperation between groups of airlines. Alliances offer airlines more flexibility and larger networks.

Airline fare – Price charged for an airline ticket. Several types of fares exist and can change with market conditions.

Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC) – An organization that provides a method of approving authorized agency locations for the sale of transportation and cost-effective procedures for processing records and funds of such sales to carrier customers.

Airport access fee – a fee paid by the car rental companies to the airport authority, for the use of shuttle vehicles, etc. – usually passed on to the consumer.

Airport transfer – a transport service to/from an airport to hotel, etc., normally prepaid as part of a package tour, but available separately as well.

Air-Sea – A cruise or travel package in which one or more transportation elements are provided by air and one or more by sea. The package is usually combined with local lodging.

All Inclusive – sold for one price that includes charges and fees that are often added separately.

All-inclusive package – A tour package in which most travel elements are purchased for set price. Also called an all-expense package.

Alternative Tourism – Travel that is not conventional in nature, though that is hard to define. It can be a niche kind of tourism.

Alternative Travel – Travel that is not conventional in nature, though that is hard to define. It can be a niche kind of tourism.

Alumni tour – A tour created for customers who have previously traveled with a tour operator. Also called a reunion tour.

Ambassador – The head of a state’s diplomatic mission in another state, usually with offices inside the main embassy.

Amenities – a desirable or useful feature or facility of a building or place

Amenity package – A cluster of special features, such as complimentary shore excursions, bar or boutique credit, or wine at dinner offered to clients on a given tour or cruise, usually as a bonus or extra feature. Usually used to induce clients to book through a particular travel agency or organization.

Amenity – The facilities and features of a property, usually cruise ship, airline or destination accommodation.

American plan – a hotel’s meal plan that usually includes all three meals each day.

AMEX – American Express (AX).

Amidships – toward the middle of a ship – usually the most stable part of the vessel.

Anniversary travel – a type of milestone travel celebrating a date that is remembered or celebrated because a special or notable event occurred on that date in a previous year, such as a wedding anniversary.

Antebellum – describes a building and/or period of time prior to the Civil War, such as an antebellum mansion on a cotton plantation in the southern US.

APEX – an airline term meaning “advance purchase excursion fare” – normally the least expensive fares.

Apron – The area surrounding the gate areas of a terminal, generally used for parking and maintenance of planes.

ARC – Airline Reporting Corporation- the agency that regulates ticket sales and reports to the airlines for travel agencies.

Archipelago – An archipelago is a grouping of islands, essentially. Indonesia and Japan are both archipelago countries.

ARTA – Association of Retail Travel Agents – professional trade group of travel agents only.

ASC Fee – Administrative Service Charge.  Usually it’s the same as the change fee, or the fee to exchange the ticket for future travel.

AST – Atlantic (or Alaska) Standard Time.

ASTA – American Society of Travel Agents – trade group consisting of travel agencies, travel agents, and allied members (suppliers, etc.).

ATO – Airline Ticket Office – becoming rarer these days, as carriers continue to reduce customer service.

Attractions – An item or specific interest to travelers, such as natural wonders, manmade facilities and structures, entertainment, and activities.

Autobahn – high-speed equivalent to the US interstate highway system, in Germany and a few other European countries.

Availability – The total number of seats allowed to be sold at a particular rate.

Average room rate – The total guest room revenue for a given period divided by the number of rooms occupied for the same period.

B&B – A bed and breakfast home or guest house that a proprietor has converted into accommodation(s) for the public. Each room becomes a separate unit for rent and typically breakfast and/or other meals are served as part of the fare.

Babymoon – A relaxing and romantic vacation or getaway taken by parents-to-be before their baby is born.

Back to back – A term used to describe tours operating on a consistent, continuing basis. For instance, a motor coach arriving in a city from a cross-country tour may conclude the first tour upon arrival, then transport a second group back along the same route to the origination city of the first tour.

Back-to-back ticket(ing) – an against-the-rules practice whereby an air ticket is issued round-trip with only one portion to be used. Another is then issued roundtrip, again with only one portion to be used. In effect, this amounts to using one ticket for the outbound part of a trip, and the other for the return. The normal Saturday night stay requirement is then avoided – useful only when two roundtrip tickets are less than the cost of a single ticket with no Saturday night stayover.

Baggage Allowance – The amount of baggage a passenger may transport without having to pay extra charges, determined by carrier.

Baggage handler – See porter.

Baggage master – The person who controls baggage handling on a ship.

Balcony – sometimes called a verandah – an outside “porch ” that is usually private, just outside your ship’s cabin. Great for relaxing and port arrivals!

Barge cruising – pleasure cruising along a canal system, such as in upstate New York or in Europe, in converted barges or new ships that resemble them.

Base fare – the basic price of an airline ticket, before ANY taxes, surcharges, airport fees, etc.

Base – Flight crew term for their home airport; where the flights originate from and terminate at.

Beam – a ship’s width at its widest point; determines whether or not a vessel can pass through the Panama Canal.

Bed and breakfast (B&B) – Overnight accommodations usually in a private home or boarding house, often with a full American-style or Continental breakfast included in one rate.

Bell captain – The person in charge of luggage at a hotel.

Bellboy – Also called “Bellboy” or “Bellman,” a person that is hired by the hotel to assist guests, such as with luggage, running errands, etc.

Bellman – a person who carries one’s luggage to a hotel room.

Benelux – term for the countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

Berth – usually refers to the bed in a ship’s cabin; also the space at which a ship is docked.

Bespoke tour – a tour that is customized, personalized and tailor-made for the traveler.

Biking Trips and tours – Bicycle trips and touring means self-contained cycling trips or pleasure, adventure and autonomy rather than sport, commuting or exercise. Touring can range from single to multi-day trips, getaways or vacations.

Birthday travel – a type of milestone travel celebrating a birthday, quite often marking decade birthday milestones such as 40th, 50th, 60th, 70th etc. birthdays.

Blackout dates – Specific dates in which special fares or promotions do not apply. Typically exist around holidays or special events.

Block – A number of rooms, seats, or space reserved in advance, usually by wholesalers, tour operators, or receptive operators who intend to sell them as components of tour packages.

Blocked space – seats, rooms, and/or cabins held on airlines, in hotels, or aboard ships. Usually held speculatively and made available at reduced rates.

Boarding pass – a receipt with a seat number, now issued only at check-in at the airport. A ticket is not valid unless a boarding pass has been issued. A Boarding Pass is not a ticket, but allows you to board a plane or ship or other mode of transportation.

Boarding Pass – Bonded – protected or guaranteed by a bond, usually referring to the protection of passenger’s funds.

Booking form – A document which purchasers of tours must complete to give the operator full particulars about who is buying the tour. It states exactly what is being purchased (including options) and must be signed as acknowledgment that the liability clause has been read and understood.

Boutique Hotel – A boutique hotel is a type of hotel, usually smaller and more intimate than a chain hotel, which conforms to a niche.

Bow – Bow is a directional term. Front of a ship or the nose of an aircraft; specifically, the foremost point of the hull of the craft.

Breakage – Expenses budgeted for a tour but not used or expended, thus resulting in additional profit to the tour operator. Examples include meals budgeted but not consumed, currency fluctuations in favor of the tour operator, or the tour selling to much larger numbers of passengers than expected.

Break-even point (BEP) – The point at which revenues and expenses are the same. For example, the BEP is the number of products (or seats, cabins, tickets, etc.) that must be sold for a company to break even. The BEP is calculated as fixed costs divided by the selling price less variable costs. See reasonable number.

Break-even pricing – Pricing a product based on a forecast of the break-even point and the cost of achieving the break-even point.

Bridge – the navigational center of a ship.

Bucket list destinations – Bucket list travel is a list of destinations a person wants to travel to and experience before reaching a certain age or dying.

Bulk contract – An agreement whereby an airline sells large blocks of seats at a discount for resale by a third party.

Bulk fare – A reduced fare for purchases of a large number of tickets.

Bulkhead Seat – Seats located directly behind a bulkhead wall separator. As these seats don’t have the benefit of a seatback in front of them.

Bulkhead – A partitioning wall, usually referring to one within the cabin of an aircraft, or perhaps on another mode of transportation.

Bumping – the airline practice of denying boarding to confirmed passengers who hold tickets on a specific flight, due to an oversold condition. The carrier will ask for volunteers to take later flights, and will normally provide some sort of compensation in the form of vouchers or tickets for future travel. Rules for when compensation must be provided are complicated; ask the ticket agent for a copy of that carrier’s rules, as each has their own set of guidelines.

Business class – While amenities vary based on the airline, business class generally falls between first class and coach.

Cabin – the passenger area on an aircraft; the stateroom aboard a cruise ship.

Cabin Crew – The collective group of flight attendants and the purser as a whole. The cabin crew is responsible primarily for handling the duties within the cabin.

Cabin steward – the person responsible for maintaining/cleaning the cabins aboard ship.

Cabin-(Aircraft) – The section of the aircraft in which passengers travel.

Cabin – A sleeping room on a ship.

Cancellation penalty – the monetary penalty due when travel plans are cancelled, usually after final payment has been made.

Cape – A small version of a peninsula, usually long and narrow, that juts far out into a body of water.

Captain – (Aircraft-The captain is the pilot in command (PIC), which is the person in the cockpit sitting on the left with 4 stripes on their shoulder.

Card mill – a “business “that sells potentially fake travel agent ID cards, usually in a sort of pyramid scheme, whereby the buyer intends only to partake of any legitimate agent benefits.

Carrier – generic term for any company that transports passengers and/or freight.

Carry-on – currently, there are no uniformly enforced airline restrictions concerning carry-on luggage.

Cashless cruising – a term that applies to the system of onboard payment used for most all cruises; the final bill for any such purchases is presented against a credit card or cash deposit given upon check-in. The final statement itemizes the purchases of all passengers in a cabin, such as drinks, shore tours, etc.

Casual research – A form of marketing research that is used to test cause-and-effect relationships between a marketing program and customers.

Cay – pronounced “key” – term for a small island, used primarily in the Caribbean, such as Princess Cay.

Celebrity Travel – celebrity and high net worth travel is an ultra-luxurious travel category describing the highly demanding travel requirements of celebrity and high net worth travelers characterized by the ultra-luxurious travel modalities and destinations with attention to privacy, security and confidentiality.

Certified Tour Professional (CTP) – A designation conferred upon tour professionals who have completed a prescribed course of academic study, professional service, tour employment, and evaluation requirements. The CTP program is administered by the National Tour Association (Lexington, KY) and is open to individuals employed in any segment of the tourism industry.

Certified Travel Associate – (CTA) – a travel professional certified by the Institute of Certified Travel Agents, who has passed a series of rigorous tests, assuring the traveling public of professional competence.

Certified Travel Counselor (CTC) – A designation attesting to professional competence as a travel agent. It is conferred upon travel professionals with five or more years of industry experience who compete a two-year graduate-level travel management program administered by the Institute of Certified Travel Agents (Wellesley, MA).

Certified Travel Industry Specialist (CTIS) – A designation conferred upon American Bus Association member company employees who successfully complete five correspondence courses (three) required and two electives and written evaluation of eight marketplace seminars.

Chain-ratio method – A method for forecasting market demand by multiplying a base market figure by a series of consumption constraints.

Chamber of commerce – A DMO that operates at the local level and is comprised of businesses that are not necessarily associated with the tourism industry.

Chancery – The physical building that houses an embassy and its diplomatic delegation.

Change of equipment – when a flight, with a single flight number, lands and changes the type of airplane used before continuing on to its destination.  Sometimes referred to as a change of gauge.

Charter service – The transportation of preformed groups (organized by someone other than the carrier), which have the exclusive use of the vehicle.

Charter – To hire the exclusive use of any aircraft, motorcoach, or other vehicle.

Chauffer driven tours – a chauffeur tour is a tour driven by a chauffeur employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine.

Chunnel – slang for the tunnel beneath the English Channel, from England to France, through which the Eurostar train passes.

Circle itinerary – A travel routing design that overnights in different locations and returns to the point of departure without retracing the travel route.

Circle trip – any trip that involves more than a single destination, but which returns to the initial point of departure.

City guide – A tour guide who points out and comments on the highlights of a city, usually from a motor coach or van.

City Pair – The departure and destination points of an air or rail journey.

City tour – A sightseeing trip through a city, usually lasting a half day or a full day, during which a guide points out the city’s highlights.

Class of Service – The inventory in which a passenger is booked according to the fare purchased. (E.g. a full fare coach class cabin is usually Y class of service)

CLIA – Cruise Lines International Association, located in New York City, NY.

Client list – A printout of the names of all tour participants.

Client mix – Objectives set by companies to achieve percentages of customers from different market segments.

Closed-end question – A question for which the answers are provided for the respondent, who chooses only from those answers.

Closeout – Finalization of a tour, cruise, or similar group travel project after which time no further clients are accepted. Any unsold air or hotel space is released, and final lists and payments are sent to all suppliers.

Coach – the “economy ” section of an aircraft, which may have literally scores of different fares for the same flight.

Collision damage waiver-(CDW) – Optional insurance provided by car rental companies that eliminates all responsibility of the driver in case of an accident. Car rental insurance covering any damage to a rental vehicle (CDW) many credit card companies cover their clients in this area if they use that card to pay for the rental. Check with you credit card company to see if you are covered and to what extent.

Commission – Money paid to a travel agency or ARC number by suppliers for generating bookings.

Commission cap – The limit placed on commissions paid to travel agents for the sale of air tickets, regardless of their price; designed to allow airlines to increase their profits at the expense of their primary distribution system – the travel agents.

Commissionable tour – A tour available through retail and wholesale travel agencies which provides for a payment of an agreed-upon sales commission to the retailer or wholesale seller.

Common carrier – Any person or organization that offers transportation for a fee.

Commuter – term referring to the small, regional airlines, sometimes called puddle-jumpers.

Comp policy – Arrangements for free tickets, rooms, meals, etc.

Complimentaries (comps) – Items provided free of charge, such as rooms, meals, tickets, airfare, gifts, souvenirs, etc.

Computerized reservation system (CRS) – An automated system used by travel agents that contains pricing, availability and product descriptions for hotels, car rentals, cruises, and air transportation.

Concierge – a hotel employee who provides additional advice, recommendations, and other services to guests, such as restaurant reservations. An employee of the hotel whose primary task is to serve as the liaison between the hotel and non-hotel attractions, facilities, services, and the guest.

Concierge Level – special service level normally offered at higher grade hotels that provide the guest additional amenities and information, typically at a higher rate.

Conditions – The section or clause of a transportation or tour contract that specifies what is not offered and that may spell out the circumstances under which the contract may be invalidated (in whole or in part).

Configuration – The interior arrangement of a vehicle, particularly an airplane. The same airplane, for example, may be configured for 190 coach-class passengers, or it may hold 12 first-class passengers and 170 coach passengers, or any other combination within its capacity.

Confirmed reservation – An oral or written statement by a supplier that he has received and will honor a reservation. Oral confirmation have virtually no legal weight. Even written or faxed confirmations have specified or implied limitations. For example, a hotel is usually not obliged to honor a reservation if a guest arrives after 6 p.m., unless late arrival has been guaranteed.

Confluence – A confluence, also known as a conflux, is the meeting point of two flowing bodies of water, such as streams or rivers; the place where they come together.

Conflux – A confluence, also known as a conflux, is the meeting point of two flowing bodies of water, such as streams or rivers; the place where they come together.

Connecting Flight – A flight that makes a stop at an intermediate point where travelers must change planes in order to connect to another flight to reach their destination. (I.e. San Francisco to Chicago and Chicago to New York).

Connecting room – Two rooms that are connected to each other by a door.

Consolidation – Cancellation by a charter tour operator of one more flights associated with a specific charter departure or departure period, with the transfer of passengers to another charter flight or flights to depart on or near the same day. Also, selling the same tour with identical departure dates through a number of wholesalers, cooperatives, or other outlets in order to increase sales and reduce the possibility of tour cancellations.

Consolidator – A wholesaler who purchases airline tickets in bulk and re-sells them to individuals and travel agencies at a discounted rate. These fares tend to have complex restrictions, but can be cheaper than buying direct from the airline. Consolidator fares are found to have the most savings on international flights.

Consortium – A collection of organizations made up of independently owned and managed agencies who band together to increase their buying power.

Consulate – Essentially a satellite office of the embassy, but its roles are limited in scope.

Consul – Head diplomat of the consulate.

Consumer protection plan – A plan offered by a company and/or association that protects the customer’s deposits and payments from loss in the event of company bankruptcy.

Consumer – The actual user of a product or service. See also customer.

Consumption constraints – Issues that limit the number of people in a market who will purchase a product.

Continental breakfast – At a minimum, a beverage (coffee, tea, or milk) and rolls and toast, with fruit juice sometimes included.

Continent – Large landmasses that the world is divided into, by convention, although it is generally-accepted that there are seven.

Contract – A legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties.

Control Tower – Often referred to as simply the tower, the people in the Control Tower oversee aircraft movements at the airport, including ground traffic.

Convenience sample – A collection of research subjects who are the easiest for the researcher to select.

Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB) – A nonprofit DMO that operates at the county and city level. A CVB typically encourages groups to hold meetings, conventions, and trade shows in its city.

Co-op tour – Selling a tour through a number of wholesalers, cooperatives, or other outlets in order to increase sales and reduce the possibility of tour cancellations.

Cooperative (co-op) advertising – An agreement between two parties to share the cost of placing an advertisement.

Corporate agency – A travel agency that usually caters to medium-large sized businesses.

Corporate Rate – a hotel rate that is designed to appeal to the needs of the business traveler. It is not necessarily a discounted rate or the minimum rate offered by the hotel. Corporate rates normally guarantee the best available room at a fixed cost for a specific period of time, typically outlined in a contract between the hotel and company.

Corporate Travel – Corporate Travel is travel arranged by a business for business purposes. A division or department of a travel agency devoted to such travel.

Costing – The process of itemizing and calculating all the costs the tour operator will pay on a given tour.

Cost-plus pricing – See markup pricing.

Couchette – the sleeping compartment of a train that can contain up to 6 beds.

Coupon – See voucher.

Cruise Tour – A land and sea vacation, which combines a cruise with a multi-night land tour to inland destinations that the ship can’t reach.

Cruise – A cruise is a voyage on a ship or boat taken for pleasure or as a vacation and usually docking at several port destinations.

CST – Central Standard Time.

CTA – Certified Travel Associate.

CTC – Certified Travel Counselor – the ultimate in travel professionals, CTC certification can be compared to the “Master’s Degree “of the industry.

Cuisine – a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes associated with a specific culture or geographic region.

Culinary Tourism – Culinary tourism is defined as the pursuit of unique and memorable eating and drinking experiences. By combining travel with these edible experiences, culinary tourism offers both locals and tourists alike an authentic taste of a specific culture or geographic region.

Cultural Tourism – Cultural tourism is the category or tourism concerned with a country or region’s culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life.

Cultural Travel – This is travel with regard to a region’s culture and history.

Culture – Similar shared traits or characteristics unique to an ethnic group, region, or nation.

Custom tour – A travel package created specifically for a preformed group or niche market.

Customer – The buyer of a product or service. See consumer.

Customized tours – a customized tour is a tour category where an independent travel plan is designed and arranged just for the traveler’s needs, goals and desires. This type of travel includes private airport/hotel transfers, hotels, internal airfare, trains, cruises, performances, events, activities and privately guided tours.

Customs – The common term for U.S. Customs Service, the federal agency charged with collecting duty on specified items imported into the country. The agency also restricts the entry of forbidden items.

CVB – Convention and Visitor’s Bureau (generic term).

Database – A computerized, organized collection of individual customer information.

Day rate – Also called a day room. A reduced rate granted for the use of a guest room during the daytime, not overnight occupancy. Usually provided on a tour when a very late-night departure is scheduled.

Day tour – An escorted or unescorted tour that lasts less than 24 hours and usually departs and returns on the same day. See sightseeing tour.

Deadheading – Making a trip or a segment of a trip without passengers, such as driving an empty motor coach somewhere.

Debark – to get off an airplane or passenger ship.

Deck – the floor area of a ship. Some cruise liners have as many as 11 to 14 decks or more.

Deck plan – the drawing representing the location of the decks, public rooms, cabins, etc. of a cruise ship.

Demand generators – Strategies and programs developed by DMOs and suppliers to generate destination demand. Examples include festivals, events, cultural tours, and consumer promotion.

Demands – A consumer’s wants backed by the ability to purchase.

Demographics – Population measures, such as age, gender, income, education, race/ethnicity, religion, marital status, household size, and occupation.

Denied-boarding compensation – that payment and/or voucher given those bumped from a flight; may be somewhat negotiable – always ask! See “bumping”.

Department of State – the US government agency that, among other things, issues cautions and warnings concerning travel to many points worldwide. Connect to the Department of State for the latest updates for the areas you are interested in.

Departure point – The location or destination from which a tour officially begins.

Departure tax – Fee collected from a traveler by the host country at the time of departure.

Deplane -To disembark, or get off, a plane.

Deposit policy – A specified amount or a percentage of the total bill due on a specified date prior to arrival.

Deposit – An advance payment required to obtain and confirm space.

Descriptive research – a form of marketing research that is used to provide detailed answers about customer markets.

Destination alliance – A DMO that operates as a for-profit association of select suppliers who form a paid-membership network to promote their services to travelers.

Destination management company (DMC) – A for-profit company that operates similar to a CVB by providing planning and execution services for the convention and meeting market.

Destination marketing organization (DMO) – An organization that promotes a location (city, region, state province, country) as a travel destination.

Destination Weddings – a destination wedding a category of travel where couples celebrate their marriage at a destination of their choosing away from home.

Destination – The geographic place to which a traveler is going.

Dine-around-plan – A meal plan, usually prepaid, that allows one to dine at various restaurants in an area.

Direct access – Refers to a travel agent’s ability to get directly into an airlines database to get true last-seat availability and correct pricing – a big difference between internet fare ” quotes ” and an agent’s CRS ( Computer Reservations System ).

Direct Flight – A flight that goes from a traveler’s origin to their final destination with one or more intermediate stops. No change in aircraft occurs. (I.e. San Francisco to New York with a stop in Chicago)

Direct marketing – Sales and marketing communication that feature direct interaction between a company and its customers without any distribution intermediaries.

Disaster Tourism – Travel when tourists go to an area that may be or may have been affected by natural disasters, civil strife, or warfare.

Disclaimer – a legal document that advises clients that a travel agent acts only as a middleman in the sale of travel products; any liability ultimately lies with the supplier, i.e. airline, hotel, car rental company, tour operator, railway, etc.

DMC – Destination Management Company

Docent – A tour guide who works free of charge at a museum.

Domestic fare – a fare charged for travel within a country.

Double booking – a not-nice practice of holding reservations to the same destination for the same times/days, on the same carriers but through different travel agencies, when only one reservation will ultimately be used.

Double Double – A room with two double beds.

Double occupancy – the way in which almost all cruise fares and tour packages are quoted, that is, based on two people traveling together. Most hotel rooms are quoted based on two adults to a room.

Double-occupancy rate – The price per person for a room to be shared with another person; the rate most frequently quoted in tour brochures.

Double-room rate – The full price of a room for two people (twice the double-occupancy rate.)

Downgrade – To move to a lesser level of accommodations or a lower class of service.

Driver guided tours – A driver guided tour is a tour guided by an individual that operates a vehicle while providing commentary in a front-line position who leads participants (individual or groups) on tours, ensures that itineraries are followed, provides commentary in an informative and entertaining manner, and creates positive experiences for tour participants.

Driver-guide – A tour guide who does double duty by driving a vehicle while narrating.

Drop-off charge – the fee added to a car rental when the vehicle is returned to a city other than where it was originally rented. In some states, there is no drop off fee most of the time, such as in Florida.

Duty-free imports – Item amounts and categories specified by a government that are fee of tax or duty charges when brought into the country.

Early Check-In – A perk that allows a guest to check in at an earlier time than the standard check-in time.

Eco/Sustainable Tourism – Eco or Sustainable Tourism is tourism directed toward exotic, often threatened, natural environments, especially to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife.

Eco-Conscious Travel – Though often interchangeable, being “eco-conscious” literally means that one is simply aware of their environmental impact.

Eco-Friendly Travel – Though often interchangeable, being “eco-conscious” literally means that one is simply aware of their environmental impact.

Economic impact study – Research into the dollars generated by an industry and how these dollars impact the economy through direct spending and the indirect impact of additional job creation and the generation of income and tax revenue.

Ecotour – A tour designed to focus on preserving the environment, or to environmentally sensitive areas.

Ecotourism – Tourism directed at exotic and/or endangered destinations while fostering an environmental understanding and conservation.

Educational tour – A tour designed around an educational activity, such as studying art.

Elder hostel – hostel catering to seniors – see “hostel”.

Electronic ticket – a “paperless” airline ticket allowing one to check-in and fly with just proper photo ID. What may look like a ticket is actually just a paper passenger receipt. E-tickets cannot be lost, or used by anyone else, so they are safer than standard paper tickets, which may soon become extinct. One drawback is that e-tickets on one carrier cannot be honored by another, so in a cancelled-flight snafu, the original carrier must print hard copy tickets before another airline can accept them. This presents major paperwork problems for the affected carrier.

Embark – to board a plane or cruise ship.

End suite – in the hotel industry, indicates that a certain feature(s) is directly in the room, or adjacent to that room.

English breakfast – basic meal of cereal, juice, eggs, meats, and other beverages. Common with most hotels in the UK/Great Britain.

Environmental scanning – The process of monitoring important forces in the business environment for trends and changes that may impact a company.

Errors and Omissions Insurance – Insurance coverage equivalent to malpractice insurance, protecting an agent’s or operator’s staff if an act of negligence, an error, or an omission occurs that causes a client great hardship or expense.

Escort – See tour director.

Escorted group tour – A group tour that features a tour director who travels with the group throughout the trip to provide sightseeing commentary and coordinate all group movement and activities.

Escrow accounts – Funds placed in the custody of licensed financial institutions for safekeeping. Many contracts in travel require that agents and tour operators maintain customers’ deposits and prepayments in escrow accounts.

EST – Eastern Standard Time.

Estimated Time of Arrival – Literally, the estimated time of the transport’s arrival. As opposed to the ATA (Actual Time of Arrival), the ETA is the time that the flight or transport arrives.

Estuary – A body of water connecting a flowing river and a larger body, such as a sea or ocean. Because it is the transition point.

ETA – estimated time of arrival.

ETD – estimated time of departure.

Ethnicity – A term that groups people together with a similar cultural identity; unlike terms such as nationality, ethnicity is more ambiguous.

Ethno-Tourism – Focusing on exploration of indigenous populations and their respective culture and traditions.

E-Ticket – Regarding transportation, especially on airlines, an electronic ticket, or e-ticket, is the digital version of a paper ticket, issued via email.

Eurailpass – a special fare ticket that allows either unlimited train travel, or travel for a certain number of days/weeks, in many European countries (except in Britain, where the Britrailpass offers similar travel in England, Scotland, and Wales).

European plan – a rate at a hotel that includes no meals.

Exchange order – See voucher.

Exclusive fare – Discounted airfares offered by travel consolidators.

Excursion – a side trip from a main destination, usually at added cost and optional.

Excursion Fare – special airline fares with restrictions such as minimum and maximum stays.

Exotic Travel – Exotic travel refers to a category of travel that is strikingly, excitingly and mysteriously different or unusual.  Exotic travel is travel that is completely different than what a traveler is accustomed to and is highly subjective in nature.

Experiential Travel – Experiential travel is also known as immersion travel and is a form of tourism in which people focus on experiencing a country, city or particular place by connecting to its history, people and culture.

Exploratory research – A form of marketing research that’s used to obtain preliminary information and clues. It is most often used when the marketing problem is ambiguous.

Extension – A fully arranged sub-tour offered optionally at extra cost to buyers of a tour or cruise.

Extensions may occur before, during, or after the basic travel program.

FAM (familiarization) tour – A free or reduced-rate trip offered to travel professionals to acquaint them with what a destination, attraction, or supplier has to offer.

Familiarity Tour – A familiarity tour as used in the travel industry it is a tour of a travel destination, travel accommodation, travel activity or travel mode (airline, cruise, ground transportation) to familiarize a travel advisor and provide knowledge and direct experience with the product or service so they can better serve their clients.

Family plan – offered by most hotels, allow children to stay in the same room as parents, at no additional charge. Age requirements vary between hotels.

Family Vacation – a family vacation is a travel category referring to travel involving family members. It is also commonly referred to as multi-generational travel.

Familymoon – A neologism term used to describe a type of honeymoon a newlywed couple can make along with their children from previous relationships.

Fare Aggregator – Fare aggregators’ redirect the users to an airline, cruise, hotel, or car rental site or online travel agent for the final purchase of a ticket. Aggregators’ business models include getting feeds from major OTAs, then displaying to the users all of the results on one screen. The OTA then fulfills the ticket. Aggregators generate revenues through advertising and charging OTAs for referring clients.

Fare Basis – the letters and numbers assigned to a specific fare like an identification number.

Fare basis (code) – The code that determines the price of an airline ticket.

Final Boarding Call – Last call to board before the jet bridge closes and the flight departs, leaving late passengers stranded.

First class – The class which offers the most premium service. Enhanced seating, meal selection, and drink offerings staples of this services.

First Officer – Pilot who is second in command. The pilot in the cockpit sitting on the right with 3 stripes.

Fishing Trips and tours – a fishing trip or fishing tour is a travel tour category where groups of fisherman are provided guided tours and typically lodging with the overall purpose of catching fish.

FIT – foreign independent tour – actually used generically now for a travel package put together by a travel agent from separate components such as car, hotel and airfare, adjusted exactly as the traveler wishes. May include city tours, theater tickets, and other “independent ” options, and may also include custom mapping/routing to accomplish the client’s goals. It now is more commonly used as an acronym for Flexible Independent Travel.  It describes a type of travel or tourism that does not incorporate a packaged tour but is nonetheless customized by a travel-selling professional.

Fjord – a narrow inlet from the ocean, usually bounded by cliffs, and with spectacular scenery. Most are located in Alaska, Norway, and New Zealand.

Flight Attendant – Commonly referred to as stewards/stewardesses and air hosts/hostesses, flight attendants are available to ensure the safety and comfort of the passengers of an aircraft.

Flight Crew – Sometimes called the aircrew, the flight crew consists of everyone hired by the airlines on a flight, including pilots, pursers, and flight attendants.

Fly/drive tour – An F.I.T. package that always includes air travel and a rental car and sometimes other travel components.

Fly-drive package – a travel package featuring airfare, rental car, and perhaps hotels. Usually less expensive than booking each separately.

Folio – An itemized record of a guest’s charges and credits which is maintained in the front office until departure. Also referred to as a guest bill or guest statement.

Fore – Directional term. Towards the front of the craft, lengthwise, such as the bow of a ship or the nose of a plane. Opposite of aft.

Frequent Flier Program – A program that a traveler can enroll in that earns them rewards such as free flights on a particular airline for being a loyal customer of that airline.

Frequent Flier – One who flies frequently.

Frequent Independent travel (F.I.T.) – A custom-designed, prepaid travel package with many

Full house – A hotel with all guest rooms occupied.

Full service hotel – a hotel with restaurant facilities.

Function room – A special room that is used primarily for private parties, banquets, and meetings. Also called banquet rooms.

Funnel flight – a flight, such as on a regional or commuter carrier that “feeds “larger planes which continue on to other destinations. Also, the use of a single flight number for an itinerary that really involves a connection with two separate flight numbers, thus making the itinerary appear to be a direct flight with a change of aircraft as opposed to a connection. Just call it a connection and be done with it.

Fuselage – The aircraft’s main body section, the cylindrical, central piece that contains the cabin and holds the crew and cargo.

Galley – The kitchen/kitchenette area of a plane or train or ship. On a plane, the galley may be a small affair with a simple arrangement and a few carts.

Gate-Airport – The specific area in an airport where passengers board a plane for a flight. Gates are located in concourses.

Gateway – City, airport, or area from which a flight or tour departs.

GDS – Global Distribution Systems – A system containing information about availability, prices, and related services for Airlines, Car Companies, Hotel Companies, Rail Companies, etc. and through which reservations can be made and tickets can be issued. A GDS also makes some or all of these functions available to subscribing travel agents, booking engines, and airlines. The GDS leaders are Amadeus, Apollo/Galileo/Worldspan, Sabre.

Geotourism – this is “tourism that sustains or enhances the distinctive geographical character of a place.

Global distribution system (GDS) – An international computer reservation system that accesses many databases of suppliers, airlines, etc. in different countries, such as Sabre.

Graduation travel – graduation travel is a milestone category of travel which refers to travel celebrating a graduation typically from high school or college.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) – solar based time in Greenwich, England, fun which time in all other time zones in the world is based.

Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT) – a measurement of the enclosed space in a ship. Cruise ships in the 70,000 ton range are considered “superliners”.

Ground operator – See receptive operator.

Group – several persons, usually 10 or more, traveling together. Group travel is often available at discounted rates.

Group leader – An individual who has been given the responsibility of coordinating tour and travel arrangements for a group. The group leader may act as a liaison to a tour operator or may develop a tour independently (and sometimes serve as the tour director).

Group Rate – A negotiated rate on travel, perhaps a stay or vacation plan, that incentivizes for a large crowd or group that books together.

Group tour – A travel package for an assembly of travelers that has a common itinerary, travel date, and transportation. Group tours are usually prearranged, prepaid, and include transportation, lodging, dining, and attraction admissions. See also escorted group tour.

Group Travel – group travel refers to a category of travel with a group arranged by an outside company or organization or travel with a group of friends and family that you have organized yourself. Some groups are small, private and escorted, while others large.

GST – Goods and Services Tax, such as levied in Canadian Provinces.

Guaranteed share – a cruise term that promises that a companion will be found for a single passenger, at a special rate. That rate will be honored even if the cruise line is unable to find a cabin mate. The rate is usually the going double-rate at that time, and is much less than the single person rate for that cabin.

Guaranteed tour – A tour guaranteed to operate unless canceled before an established cutoff date (usually 60 days prior to departure).

Guest account – See folio.

Guest houses – a guest house is a private house offering accommodations to paying guests.

Guest ranch – a guest ranch, also known as a dude ranch, is a type of ranch oriented towards visitors or tourism. It is considered a form of agritourism.

Guide or guide service – A person or company qualified to conduct tours of specific localities or attractions.

Guided tour – A local sightseeing trip conducted by a guide.

Half pension – a hotel rate that includes breakfast and one other meal, usually dinner. Sometimes called Modified American Plan (MAP) or demi-pension.

Hard-copy – a printed version of a document, such as an airline ticket or hotel voucher.

Head tax – Fee charged for arriving and departing passengers in some foreign countries.

Hidden-city ticketing – another airline no-no; buying a ticket from A to C with a stop in B. The passenger gets off at B, which was the intended destination anyway. The ticket is purchased because the fare from A to C is LESS than A to B.

High season – the time of year when a destination gets the greatest crowds, and thus can increase hotel and rental car rates, etc. As an example, summertime is high season for travel to Europe (just check the airfares!).

High season – See peak season.

Hiking Trips and tours – a hiking trip or hiking tour is a category of travel vacation or getaway where the traveler is walking or hiking as the major mode of transportation.

Honeymoon Travel – Honeymoon travel is a category of travel where a newly married couple travels while celebrating their marriage.

Hosted group tour – A group tour that features a representative (the host) of the tour operator, destination, or other tour provider, who interacts with the group only for a few hours a day to provide information and arrange for transportation. The host usually does not accompany the group as it travels.

Hostel – an inexpensive accommodation, usually dormitory style, popular with the student crowd – thus the term “youth hostel”.

Hotel – a hotel is an establishment providing accommodations, meals, and other services for travelers and tourists.

House – A synonym used for hotel.

Hub – an airport or city in which an airline has a major presence and many flights to other destinations. As an example, Delta has a hub in Atlanta. Many carriers use the hub-and-spoke system to maximize profits by keeping the aircraft in the air as much as possible. Flights to the hub are many, and from there flights too many other destinations are scheduled.

Hub-and-spoke itinerary – A travel routing design that uses a central destination as the departure and return point for day trips to outlying destinations and attractions.

Hurricane season – in the Caribbean primarily, and the Southeastern US, a period from June through October during which such storms are likely to occur.

IATA – International airline industry trade group, headquartered in Montreal, Canada, with executive offices in Geneva, Switzerland.

IATAN – International Airlines Travel Agent Network – administers the IATAN card, the only widely accepted form of legitimate travel agent identification.

In season – meaning only available at certain times of the year.

In transit – en route; in the process of traveling.

Inbound operator – A receptive operator that usually serves groups arriving from another country.

Inbound tour – A tour for groups of travelers whose trip originates in another location, usually another country.

Incentive or incentive commission – See override.

Incentive tour – A trip offered as a prize, particularly to stimulate the productivity of employees or sales agents.

Incentive travel – travel as a reward for an employee’s outstanding performance.

Incidental Charge – Items and services billed to a room after their use, such as movies, phone calls, etc.

Incidentals – Charges incurred by the participants of a tour, but which are not included in the tour price.

Inclusive tour – a package tour that bundles transportation, accommodations, transfers, sightseeing, possibly some meals, etc.

Inclusive tour – See all-inclusive package.

Independent tour – A travel package in which a tour operator is involved only with the planning, marketing, and selling of the package, but is not involved with the passengers while the tour is in progress.

In-flight Service – Entertainment (movies, television, etc.), meals, beverages and other items made available during a flight for the convenience of the passenger.

Inside cabin – a stateroom aboard ship that has no window. Sometimes smaller, but at times the same size as an outside cabin.

Intercontinental – Having to do with two continents. In travel, transit from one continent to another. Not to be confused with transcontinental.

interline connection – a flight on one airline that connects to a flight on another carrier – these tickets are usually more expensive than flying all on one carrier but may be the only way to get to a destination in some cases.

Intermodal tour – A tour that uses several forms of transportation, such as a plane, motorcoach, cruise ship, and train.

International Air Transport Association – International airline industry trade group, headquartered in Montreal, Canada, with executive offices in Geneva, Switzerland.

International Date Line – at 180 degrees longitude, the date on one side of this imaginary line, running from the north to the South Pole, is different from the other. The line runs through the Pacific Ocean, and because of it, it is possible to leave one destination on one day, and arrive in another the day before

International Rate Desk – Utilizes all available resources to ensure the lowest fare for your selected itinerary, including splitting tickets, consolidator fares, and available discounts.

Involvement device – An element of direct mail that gets the reader involved in the process of evaluating and/or responding to the solicitation.

Itinerary – A list of a tour’s or entire trip’s schedule and major travel elements.

Jet Bridge – An enclosed, movable connector which extends from a terminal gate to a plane, allowing passengers to board and disembark without having to go outside.

Jet lag – an upset of one’s biological clock, due to travel across many time zones; not all folks are affected by it.

Jones Act – a law dating back to 1886, that forbids foreign-flagged ships from carrying passengers between US ports with no foreign port stops in-between.

Judgment sample – A sample based on the researcher’s choice of subjects for a study.

Jump Seat – A flight term referring to an auxiliary (extra) seat for persons who are not operating the aircraft, such as the cabin crew or perhaps a trainee.

Kilometer – a measure of distance used in almost all other countries, at about 5/8 mile.

King room – a hotel room with a king bed.

Knot – a nautical measure of speed equaling approx. 1.5 mph. A ship traveling at 15 knots is traveling at about 22 mph.

Kph – kilometers-per-hour – land speed measurement in most other countries. 60 kph equals approx. 36 miles-per-hour.

Land arrangements – all the details of a land portion of a trip (hotel, car, tours, sightseeing, etc.).

Land Destinations – A land destination or travel destination is a place to which one is journeying, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure, adventure and amusement.

Land operator – See receptive operator.

Land Transfers – travel by train, bus, limo or taxi to and from an accommodation, plane or cruise ship.

Land-only – a rate that does NOT include airfare; usually includes most other land-based charges such as accommodations, transfers, taxes, and perhaps other optional items like theme park tickets, rental care, etc.

Last-seat availability – the ability of a travel agent to get, literally, the ” last seat ” for you on a particular flight, either at a certain fare or actually the last remaining seat on an aircraft. See “direct access”.

Late booking fee – a fee due if travel arrangement are made at the last minute. Normally covers express delivery of documents and other last-minute arrangements that may have to be made by a tour operator.

Late Checkout – A more exclusive perk for some guests that allow a few extra hours to check out from the normal hours.

Latitude – imaginary horizontal lines of angular distance, measured in degrees north or south of the equator.

Layover – a period of time spent during a trip, sometimes overnight, while waiting for a transportation connection – usually a change of planes.

Layover – The period of time spent between connecting flights.

LDW – loss damage waiver – additional insurance pertaining to car rentals, covering theft and vandalism in addition to accident damage.

Lead-in price – the lowest available price for a travel product, often pertaining to cabins on a cruise ship. Usually, there are only a few staterooms available on board each cruise liner in this category, but often better accommodations are only slightly higher in price. Rock-bottom price shoppers normally insist on these rates, though they sell out quickly.

Leeward – the side of a ship or an island that is located opposite from the direction of the prevailing wind -the “Leeward Islands” in the Caribbean for example.

Leg – Portion of a journey between two scheduled stops.

Leisure travel – Usually signifies traveling for relaxation, vacation, or to visit friends/family. Travel for pleasure as opposed to business.

Letter of agreement – A letter from the buyer to the supplier accepting the terms of the proposal. This may also be the supplier’s first proposal that has been initialed by the buyer.

Lido deck – usually the deck on a cruise ship that surrounds the pool area.

Limited service hotel – a hotel property without a restaurant.

List broker – A seller of mail lists for direct marketing.

Load factor – The number of passengers traveling on a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft compared to the number of available seats or cabins.

Locater map – A map of an area or a city, showing locations of attractions and hotels.

Lodging – Any establishment that provides shelter and overnight accommodations to travelers.

Logistics – Management of the details of an operation.

Low season – the period when a destination experiences its lowest prices and the fewest number of guests.

Low season – See off peak.

Lower (bed) – in a cruise stateroom, the bed(s) on the floor as opposed to the higher bunks (uppers), if any. On many ships, two lowers can be arranged to make a king or queen bed.

Lowest available fare – the current, lowest airfare available for purchase right then.

Lowest available fare – The most inexpensive flight currently available.

Lowest fare – the lowest published airfare between two cities; may not have seats available at that fare, as the airlines usually have a limited number of those seats on any given flight.

Luxury class – the most expensive, high-class accommodations or category of fare.

Luxury Cruise – Luxury cruises are the most comfortable and convenient way to see the world. Ships are usually smaller in size so the ratio of crew and staff to guests is generally higher than other cruise ships offering that premium service and attention to detail to be expected of exquisite vacations.

Luxury Ocean Cruise – a luxury ocean cruise is an ocean cruise on a luxury cruise ship or luxury cruise liner or passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship’s amenities are a part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way.

Luxury River Cruise – a luxury river cruise is a river cruise on a luxury cruise ship or luxury passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship’s amenities are a part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way.

Luxury travel – while luxury travel is completely subjective to the traveler, it can be loosely defined at travel that constitutes the state of great comfort and extravagant living.

Luxury vacations – a luxury vacation is a vacation that encompasses a state of great comfort and extravagant living.

Macro-environment – The broad forces in society and the business world that impact most companies.

Management Company – A firm that owns several lodging properties.

Manifest – Final official listing of all passengers and/or cargo aboard a transportation vehicle or vessel.

Market demand – The amount of a specific product or service that may be purchased during a certain period of time in a particular geographic area.

Market forecast – The realistic demand within a given time period for the products produced by all companies within a certain industry or product category.

Market – All existing and potential customers for a product or service.

Marketing mix – The 4 Ps of marketing- product, price, promotion, place (distribution).

Marketing plan – A written report that details marketing objectives for a product or service, and recommends strategies for achieving these objectives.

Marketing research – The function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through the systematic gathering and analyzing of information.

Markup pricing – Pricing a product by adding a standard markup to costs. Also called cost-plus pricing.

Markup – A percentage added to the cost of a product to achieve a selling price.

Master account – The guest account for a particular group or function that will be paid by the sponsoring organization. See folio.

Maximum stay – The longest period of time a traveler can stay at a particular destination and still qualify for the promotion or discounted fare.

Media – Communications channel such as broadcast (radio, TV), print (newspapers, magazines, direct mail), outdoor (billboards), and multimedia (Internet).

Meet-and-greet service – A pre-purchased service for meeting and greeting clients upon arrival in a city, usually at the airport, pier, or rail station, and assisting clients with entrance formalities, collecting baggage, and obtaining transportation.

Meeting/conference tour – A tour designed around a specific meeting or conference for the participants.

Microenvironment – Those forces close to a company that impact operations and marketing programs.

Midships – Directional term. Amidships, sometimes termed midships, is the center of the vessel or aircraft.

Minimum connect time – defined as the minimum time necessary between connecting flights – 30 minutes domestically, usually – ideally, at least an hour. The shortest time required in order to successfully transfer to a connecting flight. It is recommended to select a connecting flight that exceeds the minimum connection time.

Mission statement – The concise description of what an organization is, its purpose, and what it intends to accomplish.

Modified American plan (MAP) – meal plan that includes two daily meals, usually breakfast and dinner.

Motorcoach tour operators – Tour operators that own their own motorcoaches.

Motorcoach Tour – A tour that features the motorcoach as the form of transportation to and from destinations.

Motorcoach – A large, comfortable bus that can transport travelers and their luggage long distances.

MST – Mountain Standard Time.

Multi-day tour – A travel package of two or more days. Most multi-day tours are escorted, all-inclusive packages.

Multigenerational Travel – multigenerational travel is a travel category referring to travel with parents, siblings, kids, grandkids, and assorted family members with the goal to broaden horizons, provide opportunities to reconnect and provide an enriching assortment of shared experiences.

Murder-mystery tour – A tour that features a staged “murder” and involves travelers in solving the crime.

Mystery tour – A journey to unpublicized destinations in which tour takers aren’t told where they will be going until en route or upon arrival.

NACTA – National Association of Career Travel Agents – trade group representing primarily independent and home-based agents, now part of ASTA.

National tourism organization (NTO) – A federal-government-level DMO that promotes country as a travel destination.

Nautical Mile – Unit of length that is about one minute of arc of latitude along any meridian, but is approximately one minute of arc of longitude. Air-Sea distance measurement of approx. 1.1 statute miles.

Negotiated Rate – A discounted rate offered to a company based on the volume of business you agree to provide the selected vendor.

Net fare, net rate – Implies the commission has already been added to the price of the fare.

Net wholesale rate – A rate usually slightly lower than the wholesale rate, applicable to groups of individuals when a hotel is specifically mentioned in a tour brochure. The rate is marked up by wholesale sellers of tours to cover distribution and promotion costs.

Niche market – A highly specialized segment of the travel market, such as an affinity group with a unique special interest.

No show – a passenger who doesn’t show for a flight, hotel, or rental car booking. A guest with confirmed reservations who does not arrive and whose reservation was not canceled.

Non Stop Flight – Do not land in between your departure and arrival destinations. (I.e. San Francisco to New York)

Non-Changeable Ticket – A ticket that cannot be exchanged for a different route or flight once it’s been purchased.

Non-refundable – a fare that cannot be refunded either in cash or via a credit card credit; very seldom is there an exception.

Non-Refundable Ticket – A ticket that cannot be returned for cash or credit once it’s been purchased, but may be changeable for a fee.

Nonstop – A flight that travels directly to its destination without connections or layovers.

Non-transferable – A ticket that can only be used by the person who was originally scheduled to fly at the time of purchase.

NTSB – National Transportation Safety Board; investigates accidents and other incidents related to public transportation.

Objective and task method – A process for creating a promotion budget that sets objectives first, then defines the tasks needed to achieve those objectives, and then commits funds necessary to perform the tasks.

Occupancy rate – the percent of hotel rooms expected to be filled during a specific time period.

Occupancy – The percentage of available rooms occupied for a given period. It is computed by dividing the number of rooms occupied for a period by the number of rooms available for the same period.

Ocean view cabin – a cabin aboard a cruise ship with a window, such as a porthole or picture-window, and perhaps a balcony/verandah.

OCV – ocean view, usually in reference to a hotel room.

Offline connection – a change of aircraft also involving a change of carriers.

Off-peak – A less expensive time to travel as result of lower consumer volume during these periods.

On-site guide – A tour guide who conducts tours of one or several hours’ duration at a specific building, attraction, or site.

Onsite – An on-site is an expert travel provider that lives in the country they serve and has firsthand knowledge and long-standing relationships with all aspect of travel in their country.

Open jaw – a trip in during which there is no travel by air between two cities, such as a flight to Washington DC, then travel by rental car to Charlotte, NC, then a return by air from Charlotte back to the original departure city.

Open return – an air ticket with no return date specified. Rarely done these days, usually quite expensive and not allowed on most discounted fares.

Open-end question – A question that allows the respondent to provide a free-response answer.

Open-jaw itinerary – A travel routing design that departs from one location and returns to another. For example, travelers may fly into one city and depart from another one. Or a traveler may purchase round-trip transportation from the point of origin to one destination, at which another form of transportation is used to reach a second destination, where the traveler resumes the initial form of transportation to return to the point of origin.

Operations – Performing the practical work of operating a tour or travel program.

Operator – a company providing transportation or travel related services (airline, cruise line, railway, hotel, car Rental Company, etc.).

Operator – See Tour Operator.

Option date – drop dead date on which a reservation must be deposited or cancellation will result.

Optionals – Optional tour features that are not included in the base tour price, such as sightseeing excursions or special activities.

OTA – Online travel agencies, examples include Priceline, Expedia and Orbitz

Outbound – the departure leg of a journey.

Outbound operator – A company that takes groups from a given city or country to another city or country.

Outbound tour – A tour that takes travelers out of the area, usually from a domestic city to another country.

Outside cabin – see “ocean view ” cabin.

Outside salesperson – job description of a travel agency employee who sells travel but is not based primarily in the agency location most of the time.

Overbook – Accepting reservations for more space than is available.

Overbooking – the practice of selling more airline seats than are available on a specific flight, to make up for no-shows. Usually backfires on the carrier and at times can create much consumer ill-will. Requires passengers to be “bumped” – not always voluntarily. To some extent, happens in the hotel industry as well.

Overhead – Those fixed costs involved in regular operations, such as rent, insurance, management salaries, and utilities.

Override – A commission over and above the normal base commission percentage.

Packaged travel – A package in combination of two or more types of tour components into a product which is produced, assembled, promoted and sold as a package by a tour operator for an all-inclusive price.

Passenger facility charge (PFC) – a fee for the use of many airports, added in to the cost of an air ticket – another name for an additional tax on travelers.

Passenger name record (PNR) – The official name of one’s reservation in a computer reservation system (CRS).

Passenger vessel – Ships, yachts, ferries, boats, etc.

Passport/visa service – a service that will take your passport and hand carry, if necessary, to the appropriate embassy in order to expedite a visa. Can be expensive if you have waited until the last minute to obtain a travel visa.

Patronage Program – A program that rewards the customer for loyalty and repeat purchase, such as frequent-flyer programs.

Peak season – A destination’s high season when demand is strong. Also called the high season.

Peninsula – A piece of land that is connected to a mainland or larger piece of land on only one side, while the other sides are surrounded by water.

Per Diem – “by the day;” in the cruise industry, the per-day cost of a cruise, per person.

Per-capita costs – Per-person costs.

Per-capita tour – See scheduled tour.

Perceived value – The ratio of perceived benefits to perceived price.

Personal effects coverage – Additional car rental insurance covering loss of personal property from the rented vehicle.

Point-to-point – refers to the fares between two cities; the service between two cities without additional segments or any continuation.

Port – the place where a ship docks; a place visited by cruise ship; the left side of a vessel.

Port charges/taxes – fees levied by local authorities upon the cruise lines for each passenger visiting a port of call, normally added to the total cruise fare.

Port of Debarkation – Port of Debarkation is the geographic point where personnel arrive on a cruise vessel

Port of Embarkation – Port of Embarkation is the geographic point where personnel depart on a cruise vessel

Port of entry – Destination providing customs and immigration services.

Port-Directional – When facing forward, the side of the ship or aircraft that is on the left.

Porter – A person who handles luggage at an airport, train station, etc.; also called skycap or baggage handler.

Porthole – usually a round, sealed window in a shipboard stateroom.

Posada – a small country hotel (Spanish).

Positioning strategy – The development of a clear, unique, and attractive image for a company and/or product in the minds of target customers.

Positive space – space aboard a ship or aircraft that can be confirmed ahead of time.

Post-Cruise Vacation – a post-cruise vacation is a vacation or getaway prior to a cruise in the town or region of the port of debarkation of the cruise.

PPDO – per person, double occupancy. Most tours and cruises are quoted this way; the average cost to stay in a particular location per day.

Pre- and post-trip tour – An optional extension or side trip package before and/or after a meeting, gathering, or convention.

Pre-Cruise Vacation – a vacation or getaway prior to a cruise in the town or region of the port of embarkation of the cruise.

Pre-deduct commission – When a distributor such as a travel agent takes up front the commission on a sale and sends the supplier the balance of the sales price.

Preferred Supplier – The selection of specific supplier(s) for priority promotion to customers and/or integration in travel packages in exchange for reduced rates and/or higher commission.

Preferred Vendor – The vendor(s) a company specifies as their first choice for travelers.

Preformed group – A pre-existing collection of travelers, such as affinity groups and travel clubs, whose members share a common interest or organizational affiliation.

Prepaid ticket advice – a form used when purchasing an air ticket to be picked up and used by someone else at another airport. E-tickets have reduced the need for this greatly.

Primary research – The collection of data specifically to solve the marketing problem at hand.

Prix fixe – meals offered at a fixed price, usually fairly low, consisting of several courses with no substitutions allowed. Common in Europe.

Profit margin – A dollar value that represents the markup of a product’s price over its costs.

Promotion mix – Promotion tools including advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, and public relations.

Promotional group tour – A travel package composed of tour elements that match the specific needs and wants of niche customers who aren’t part of an organized or preformed group.

Promotional partnership – The combination of two or more companies to offer special incentives to customers.

Prop – referring to propeller-driven aircraft.

Property – A specific lodging structure, such as a hotel, and the ground on which it is built.

Property – A general term that may be used by a place of accommodation that denotes the facility.

Protection overbooking – The practice of blocking space that will likely be in excess of what will actually be needed.

Pseudo-agent – someone claiming to be a travel agent who really isn’t.  They often produce bogus ID cards, and can disappear when problems arise!

PST – Pacific Standard Time.

Psychographics – Measures of a person’s lifestyle. See also AIO variables.

Public relations (PR) – A management function that determines the attitudes and opinions of an organization’s publics, identifies its policies with the interests of its publics, and formulates and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and goodwill.

Public tours – See scheduled tour.

Published fare – an airfare that is listed in the carrier’s tariff.

Pull strategy – A marketing approach that creates demand at the customer level by generating awareness, interest, and desire so customers pull a product through a distribution channel by demanding it.

Purser – aboard ship, the person responsible for providing a wide array of services such as information, making change, stamps, etc. Found at the purser’s desk.

Purser-(Airline) – On a flight, the purser is the head flight attendant, responsible for overseeing the attendants and making sure travelers’ needs are met.

Push strategy – A marketing approach that creates demand at the distributor level by providing resellers with an incentive to push (sell) a product to end consumers.

Quad – a room suitable for four persons.

Quay – a pier – pronounced the same as “key”.

Query – The process of sorting and retrieving information from a database.

Quid – a monetary term for a British pound sterling.

Quota sample – A research sample that involves forming groups based on certain characteristics. A random sample can then be selected form the quota segments.

Rack rate – The published (brochure) rate for a travel component. The price of a hotel prior to discount.

Rate desk – the office of an air carrier that calculates fares for passengers and travel agents.

Reach – The measure of how many people in a market will be exposed to a certain advertisement via a specific medium.

Reasonable number – A forecast of the break-even point for a tour.

Rebate (ing) – the practice of returning part of an agency’s commission on a scale back to the client in the form of a rebate or “discount.” The trade-off is usually little or no personal/customer service. This is practiced often by “800 ” number travel sellers and others who deal in huge volume.

Receptive operator – A local tour company that specializes in services for incoming visitors, often for tour operator groups.

Reconfirm – to double-check a reservation.

Record locator – The number assigned to a reservation in the airlines number. This number is unique, as it will never be assigned again.

Record locator – the number assigned to one’s reservation in an airline’s computer system.

Red-eye flight – An overnight flight that leaves at night and arrives early the next morning.

Referral agent/agency – an ” agent ” that refers business to a travel agency in return for a commission or fee – often as part of a card mill operation

Registry – the formal registration of a ship’s ownership, and the country it is registered in (such as Panama, Liberia, Norway, etc.).

Reissue – the generation of a new ticket that is exchanged for another, due to a change of plans, dates, flights, etc. May involve additional fare, penalties and fees.

Relationship marketing – The process of building and nurturing ongoing, solid relationship with customers.

Repositioning – the moving of a cruise ship to another home port for all of part of a season, such as the repositioning of ships to Alaska for the summer. Often these cruises are excellent bargains, but will involve one-way airfare home from the port of debarkation.

Res – short for “reservation”.

Research constraints – Those issues, such as cost and timing that will limit the scope of marketing research.

Reseller – See retailer and wholesaler.

Reservation fee – A customer payment for a certain percentage of the travel package price that’s made immediately after booking.

Responsible Tourism – Travel that extends beyond being merely environmentally responsible, to being culturally-conscious and economically-aware, locally.

Retail price – The actual price a customer pays for a travel element or tour.

Retail tour – See scheduled tour.

Retailer – A middleman, such as a travel agent, who sells directly to the customer.

Retirement travel – retirement travel is a category of travel referring to when a traveler is has retired from a career and commences to travel.  Travel done after retirement age.

Rollaway – a cot or other bedding that can be added to a hotel room to accommodate another guest. There is often an extra charge for this.

Romantic Destinations – romance destination and romance travel is a category of travel that involves travel involving a feeling of excitement and mystery associated with love and often refers to travel associated with a wedding, honeymoon, wedding anniversary, babymoon or another type of romantic getaway.

Room Night – In the hotel (hospitality) industry, a room night, room/night occupancy, is a measure of occupancy where a room is the unit of measure.

Room Occupancy – In the hotel (hospitality) industry, a room night, room/night occupancy, is a measure of occupancy where a room is the unit of measure.

Room rates – The various rates used by lodging properties to price rooms. These include- day rate (usually one half the regular rate for a room used by a guest during the day up to 5 p.m.-sometimes called a use rate), flat rate (a specific room rate for a group agreed upon by the hotel and group in advance), group rate (same as flat rate), net group rate ( a wholesale rate for group business to which an operator may add a markup if desired), net wholesale rate ( a rate usually lower than the group rate and applicable to groups or individuals when a hotel is specifically mentioned in a tour folder), and published rate ( a full rate available to or advertised to the public-also called the rack rate.)

Rooming list – A printout of the names of all tour participants that also lists special lodging requests and provides a spot for the hotel or cruise ship to fill in the passenger’s room number.

Round trip – A flight to a single destination and a return.

Run-of-house (ROH) – refers to a hotel room, the type of which is assigned at the discretion of the hotel shortly before you arrive. Usually, the rates are lower.

Run-of-ship – cabin is assigned at the last moment, giving the cruise line the ability to shift accommodations as needed. Usually, you are guaranteed a minimum category of cabin, and sometimes get an upgraded stateroom at no additional cost. Most upgrades are from inside-to-inside cabins, or from outside-to-outside but occasionally an inside-to-ocean view upgrade will occur. It is not always worth the gamble though.

Run-of-the-house rate – A flat rate for which a lodging property agrees to offer any of its available rooms to a group. Final assignment of the rooms is at the discretion of lodging management.

Sabre® – A computerized travel reservation system.

Safaris – Today the negative hunting connotations of the word ‘safari’ are being rapidly replaced by more modern associations with socially and environmentally responsible travel. Safari travel typically implies that the journey will include game viewing and some time spent in wilderness areas (game reserves and national parks). A traditional is usually focused on seeing wildlife, but safaris are definitely not limited to game viewing.  Safaris are now for admiring wildlife and birds in the wild, along with a host of other adventures. Safaris have largely developed into vacation trips that actually benefit the wildlife by supporting local conservation efforts and wildlife sanctuaries. As opposed to hunting the animals, visitors get to encounter them and help make a difference in protecting the species. Safari companies either actively contribute towards conservation projects or help generate tourism revenue which is used to manage wildlife projects and game reserves. The modern safari is also a socially responsible journey designed to interact ethically with local communities and have a positive impact on local economies. The cultural interactions offered by reputable safari operators do not exploit local people. The local communities benefit from sustainable tourism through employment and financial gains from selling goods and services.

Sales margin – A term used by resellers to describe profit as a percentage of sales revenue.

Sample – The portion of a population chosen to represent the population being studied for research.

Saturday night stay – A requirement by the airlines that your travel must involve a Saturday night stay over in order to obtain our lowest fare.

Saturday night stay – In order to receive a specialty fare, a Saturday stay over is sometimes required.

Scandals tour – A light-hearted history tour that shows locations where interesting scandals took place.

Scheduled carrier – An airline that offers regularly scheduled flights between destinations.

Scheduled flights – Air flights that are publicly scheduled and promoted by major airlines.

Scheduled tour – A tour that’s set in a tour operator’s regular schedule of tour departures and that’s often sold to the general public. Also called public tour or retail tour.

Sea bands – a product resembling a bracelet that is worn on the wrists and operates via acupressure.

Wearers claim that seasickness can be avoided by their use, thus eliminating the need for drugs such as Dramamine, etc.

Sea legs – the ability to move around on a ship without losing balance and without sea sickness.

Secondary information – Research data that was collected by another company or person and usually for a purpose that’s different than the research objectives and tasks at hand.

Sectioning system (GPS) – system of satellites that allows miniature radio receivers on earth to pinpoint one’s location within a few feet. Most cruise ships make use of this system to navigate the world’s oceans.

Segment – a “leg” or part of a journey, usually in reference to an air itinerary. One take-off and landing during air travel constitutes a “segment”.

Segment – One leg or portion of a trip. The segment begins when you board the plane and ends when you de-board the plane. (I.e. A connecting flight from San Francisco to New York through Chicago equals 2 segments)

Self-drive – a rental car (British term).

Service non comprise – in French, meaning “service not included”.

Shells – Preprinted brochures with photos, illustrations, and graphics but no text; also called slicks.

Shore excursion – tours that are purchased as an option when visiting ports of call while on a cruise; can sometimes be bought before you cruise.

Shore excursion – A land tour, usually available at ports of call, sold by cruise lines or tour operators to cruise passengers.

Shoulder season – a period of time between high and low seasons, where prices at a destination are between their highest and lowest, and the crowds are thinner.

Shoulder season – Those periods between the peak and off season when destination demand is moderate.

Sightseeing companies – Organizations that provide local guided tours.

Sightseeing guide – See driver/guide.

Sightseeing tour – Short excursions of usually a few hours that focus on sightseeing and/or attraction visits.

Simple random sample – A sample that draws a group of respondents randomly from all members of the population.

Single Room – A room that is only guaranteed to comfortably accommodate one guest. May also be called a “Standard Room.”

Single Supplement – An additional charge added to a solo traveler, when prices were originally quoted for dual occupancy.

Sleeper – the sleeping compartment aboard a train.

Soft adventure – an outdoor travel experience that is not especially physically demanding, such as a canyon horseback trail ride or a hot-air balloon flight.

Sommelier – A wine professional, usually hired by the most upscale restaurants and establishments, on staff to primarily suggest wine and food pairing to patrons.

Spa – a resort area centered around a mineral springs, hot springs and the like, typically where one can find massage, hydrotherapy, exercise, steam baths, etc.

Special event tour – A travel package that features major happenings, such as concerts or sporting events, as the reason for the journey.

Special fare – Any fare that deviates from normal pricing (typically discounted).

Special interest tour – a tour catering to the needs of a specific interest, such as bird-watching, whale-watching, river rafting, mountain biking, rain forest exploration among many others.

Split itinerary – An itinerary in which part of the group does one thing while the other part does something else.

Split Ticket – Issuing multiple tickets for one round-trip journey. This is done to reduce the total cost of the entire reservation.

Sports Tourism – sports tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event staying apart from their usual environment.

Stabilizer – a device on most all cruise vessels, to reduce pitch and roll when at sea – the movement that can cause seasickness. Stabilizers are often pulled in at night in order to allow faster speeds when traveling between ports of call.

Standby – Referring to a passenger who does not have a confirmed seat on the intended flight.

Star Service – a critical guide describing in detail many hotel and cruise ship properties. Can be subjective, as it is based on someone’s opinion, but provides a travel agent with a non-commercial point-of-view.

Starboard – the right side of a ship.

Stateroom – A private cabin or compartment with sleeping accommodations on a ship or train.

Step-on guide – A tour guide who boards a motorcoach to give detailed, expert commentary about the city or area being visited.

Stern – the rear of a ship.

Stopover – a planned stayover in a city for a day or more, while enrooted to another destination. Sometimes adds significantly to the cost of an air ticket.

Strategic plan – A report that describes a company’s mission statement, goals, objectives and strategic actions.

Student visa – permission to enter a country, issued to a student, normally for the purpose of attending school in that country.

Subcontractor – A local operator who provides services for a wholesaler.

Suite – a hotel accommodation with more than one room, or sometimes a single room with distinct sleeping and living areas and often a kitchenette. A suite in a hotel or other public accommodation denotes a class of accommodations with more space and amenities than a typical accommodation room. Luxury or upscale accommodations often have a scaled range of suites progressively increasing in size, luxury and amenities starting with a junior suite and culminating in the largest and most luxurious suite which is often called a presidential or royal suite.

Supplier – any company that supplies travel and/or related services to the traveling public. The actual producer and seller of travel components.

Surface – travel over land that does not involve an aircraft.

SWOT analysis – A summary of a company’s strengths and weaknesses, and the environmental opportunities and threats that will most influence it.

T&E – Travel and Entertainment expenses.

Target market – The group of customers who will be the focus of a company’s marketing efforts.

Tariff – a schedule of prices/fares.

Telemarketing – Direct marketing via the telephone.

Tender – a small boat or ferry that carries passengers from an anchored cruise ship to the pier at a port of call. Many ships are too large for existing port facilities at some destinations, and so they anchor just off shore and “tender “their passengers in for their visit.

Terminal – A building where clients report for trips via train, plane, etc.; also called a depot or a station.

TGV – the term applied to the French high-speed train system.

Theme cruise – a cruise devoted to a specific interest, such as big bands, country western, Star Trek, exercise and weight-loss, cooking and cuisine, and many more. There is usually a theme cruise to suit just about any interest.

Theme tour – A tour that’s designed around a concept of specific interest to the tour takers, such as history or sports.

Through passenger – a passenger who is not disembarking at a particular stop while enrooted to the final destination.

Ticket stock – Blank airline tickets.

Tickler system – A method for monitoring reservations and payments that’s arranged by date and points out late payments so customers can be contacted.

Tiered override plan – When commissions rise proportionately with a corresponding increase in sales.

Tiered pricing – When suppliers offer different prices to receptive operators, tour operators, and group leaders, so each party can earn a profit by marking up the supplier’s price while still offering a fair price to customers.

Tour broker – See tour operator.

Tour catalog – A publication by tour wholesalers listing their tour offerings. Catalogs are distributed to retail agents who make them available to their customers. Bookings by retail agents are commissionable.

Tour Company – A tour company or tour operator typically combines tour and travel components to create a packaged vacation. They advertise and produce brochures to promote their products, vacation and itineraries.

Tour conductor – the person who accompanies and is in charge of a tour, often on a motor coach tour. See tour director.

Tour departure – The date of the start by any individual or group of a tour program or, by extension, the entire operation of that single tour.

Tour director – Also called tour manager, tour conductor, and tour escort. The person who is responsible for a group on tour and for most aspects of a tour’s execution.

Tour escort – See tour director.

Tour guide – A person qualified (and often certified) to conduct tours of specific locations or attractions.

See also step-on guide, city guide, on-site guide, and docent.

Tour manager – See tour director.

Tour manual – A compendium of facts about a destination, tour procedures, forms, and other information that a tour operator gives to its tour directors.

Tour menu – A menu that limits group clients to two or three choices.

Tour operator – A person or company that contracts with suppliers to create and/or market a tour and/or subcontract their performance.

Tour order – A voucher given to the purchaser of a tour package that identifies the tour, the seller, and the fact that the tour is prepaid. The purchaser then uses this form as proof of payment and receives vouchers for meals, porterage, transfers, entrance fees, and other expenses. See also voucher.

Tour planner – A person who researches destinations and suppliers, negotiates contracts, and creates itineraries for travel packages.

Tour rate – See group rate.

Tour series – Multiple departures to the same destination throughout the year.

Tour – A prearranged, prepaid journey to one or more destinations that generally returns to the point of origin, is usually arranged with an itinerary of leisure activities, and includes at least two travel elements.

Tourism – The business of providing marketing services and facilities for leisure travelers.

Tourist card – a card issued to a visitor in lieu of a visa, usually for a short duration visit.

Tourist – This is the majority of adult travelers, when not vacationing. Tourists may be couples, families, or just a person or two who visit locations.

Tours – a tour is a journey for pleasure which includes the visiting of a number of places in sequence, especially with an organized group often led by a guide.

Tracking study – A survey of customers before and after implementing a promotion campaign to assess changes in consumer behavior.

Trans-canal – passing through the Panama Canal.

Transcon – Having to do with crossing a continent. For example, travel of this sort would be from one end of a continent to another.

Transcontinental – Having to do with crossing a continent. For example, travel of this sort would be from one end of a continent to another.

Transfer – Local transportation and porterage from one carrier terminal to another, from a terminal to a hotel, or from a hotel to an attraction.

Transient Occupancy Tax – Also known as a Bed Tax, it is a City or County tax added to the price of the room.

Transient – A person who stays in a place for just a short while; not a permanent resident, such as a visitor or tourist.

Transit visa – A visa allowing the holder to stop over in a country or make a travel connection or a brief visit.

Transportation – Any method of moving travelers from one point in a journey to another, such as air, ship, rail, and motor coach travel.

Travel advisor – a travel advisor simplifies the time-consuming and complicated process of planning travel for their customers in addition to providing consultation services and entire travel packages. They may book flights, cruises, rental cars and hotels, as well as resort stays and events. Agents cater to a wide demographic, serving both individuals and corporations. They may also concentrate in a special segment of travel; many advisors specialize in leisure, business or group travel, or destination-specific journeys.

Travel advisory – a travel warning issued by the US Department of State, indicating a special caution should be taken in a country due to political unrest, natural disaster, or other special situation. These can be obtained from any good travel agent, on any area you are considering visiting.

Travel agency – Usually used in the travel industry to refer to an ARC-appointed storefront retailer.

Travel agent – A person or firm qualified to arrange for lodging, meals, transportation, cruises, tours, and other travel elements, typically on a commission basis. A travel agent simplifies the time-consuming and complicated process of planning travel for their customers in addition to providing consultation services and entire travel packages. They may book flights, cruises, rental cars and hotels, as well as resort stays and events. Agents cater to a wide demographic, serving both individuals and corporations. They may also concentrate in a special segment of travel; many agents specialize in leisure, business or group travel, or destination-specific journeys.

Travel component – Transportation, lodging, dining, attractions, entertainment, guide services, and other travel elements offered as part of a travel package.

Travel Destination – a place to which one is journeying.

Travel Experience – A travel experience or experiential travel (also known as immersion travel) as it is commonly referred to, is a form of tourism in which people focus on experiencing a country, city or particular place by connecting to its history, people and culture.

Travel Institute – the primary educational and certification arm of the travel industry. Was formerly the “Institute of Certified Travel Agents” (ICTA), located in Wellesley, Mass.

Travel Insurance – Travel insurance is insurance that is intended to cover medical expenses, trip cancellation, lost luggage, flight accident and other losses incurred while traveling, either internationally or within one’s own country.

Travel Itinerary – a travel itinerary is a travel plan or organization of your travel and involves all of the details, times and dates concerning things like airline, cruises and train transportation confirmations, hotel, villa and accommodation reservations, rental car information, restaurant reservations and much more.

Travel Policy – A fluid internal document, pertinent to the company’s culture that outlines the guidelines for business travel and expenses within a company.

Travel rewards – Travel reward programs are often referred to as a loyalty rewards program, and they are generally a campaign devised to generate repeat customers for a particular company by offering a point gratification system for the customers’ business. They are also meant to provide customers with a “thank you” for their loyalty to a company’s product or service. That benefit is typically some sort of discount on certain items or services.
Travel specialist – a travel specialist is a travel agent or travel advisor that concentrates in a special segment of travel; many travel agents or travel advisors specialize in leisure, group or business travel, or destination specific travel.

Travel Tours – a travel tour is a journey for pleasure which includes the visiting of a number of places in sequence, especially with an organized group often led by a guide.

Traveler – One who travels.

Travelogues – Many travel websites are online travelogues or travel journals, usually created by individual travelers and hosted by companies that generally provide their information to consumers for free. These companies generate revenue through advertising or by providing services to other businesses. This medium produces a wide variety of styles, often incorporating graphics, photography, maps, and other unique content.

Trip director – An escort for an incentive company. Larger companies reserve this title for the person who directs all personnel and activities for a particular incentive trip.

Trundle Bed – Bed that stores itself under another bed, usually on casters. Often found in smaller hotel rooms or in cramped transport accommodations.

Turn – Airline parlance. A flight that leaves base and returns back to base in the same day. Also known as a turnaround.

Turnaway – A potential reservation that couldn’t be satisfied because the tour (or hotel, ship, etc.) was fully booked.

Twenty-four hour time – used extensively in Europe and other countries, 1pm becomes 1300 hours, 4pm is 1500 hours, etc., up to 2359 ( 1159pm ). Midnight is then considered 2400 or “zero ” hours. 1-20am is then 0120 or “one hour, twenty minutes “and so on. Most schedules and timetables in the majority of other countries are listed in the 24-hour format.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites – a UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.

Unlimited mileage – No mileage restriction when renting a car.

Unrestricted fare – an airfare that has no special advance purchase, Saturday stay or certain days to travel requirements, and is usually refundable. Many full coach and most first-class fares are unrestricted. An airfare with no limitations. It is typically refundable and has no blackout days.

Upgrade – To move to a better accommodation or class of service.

USTOA – United States Tour Operators Association – a trade association which requires its members to be very financially stable and to have a million dollars or more in funds set aside for consumer protection against defaults. Visit www.ustoa.com for more information.

Value added tax (VAT) – a tax on goods in Europe, which under certain circumstances can be refunded.

Value season – similar to shoulder or low season, when pricing is lower. See off season.

Value – The relationship between the benefits associated with a product or service and the costs of obtaining the product or service. See also perceived value.

Value-added tax (VAT) – A type of tax system which adds a fixed percentage of taxation on products and services at each step of production or service delivery.

Value-based pricing – Pricing a product based on buyer perceptions of value rather than actual product costs.

Variable costs – Costs that change with sales or production levels.

Variance report – A summary of how much a company has gone above or below budget.

Verandah – a roofed-porch, such as connected to a cruise ship stateroom.

VIA rail – the Canadian railway system.

Villas – a large and luxurious country residence. A villa is a fancy vacation home. The word has been around ever since ancient Roman times to mean “country house for the elite.” In Italian, villa means “country house or farm.” Most villas include a large amount of land and often barns, garages, or other outbuildings as well.

VIP experiences – a VIP Experience is the most exclusive way to go behind the scenes or experience a travel destination, accommodation or mode of transportation.

Visa – usually a stamp in a passport allowing entry into a country for a specific purpose and a finite amount of time.

Visa service – a service that can expedite the processing of a visa, sometimes even at the last minute. A fee is charged that varies, depending on the nature of the service needed. Visas are usually stamped into the pages of a valid passport and are issued for varying reasons and periods of time. Not all countries require them, especially for United States Citizens.

Volume incentive – See override.

Volume purchase – The purchase of large quantities of a product or service.

Voucher – Documents that are exchanged for goods and service to substantiate payment that will be or already has been made.

Voyage – a voyage is a long journey involving travel by sea or in space.

Waitlist – A list of clients awaiting transportation or accommodations at times when they are not available. Waitlisted clients are confirmed as a result of subsequent cancellations.

Waiver – a written acknowledgement that a passenger has declined something, such as insurance coverage for a trip, for example. Also, the formal acknowledgement of the waiving or dismissal of a requirement, such as a waiver of a penalty for late booking, etc.

Waiver – A written acknowledgement that a passenger has declined something.

Walk-up – one who purchases an air ticket at the last moment, usually at the airport ticket counter.

Wants – Ways in which a person satisfies a basic need.

Wellness Travel – wellness travel is a category of travel for the purpose of promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological, or spiritual activities

Wet bar – the area of a hotel room that has a bar or other counter space with running water, used for the preparation of drinks.

Wholesale – Sale of travel products through an intermediary in exchange for a commission or fee generally at reduced tariffs.

Word-of-mouth promotion – Personal communication about a product or service from one customer to another.

World Travel Guide – a yearly publication that provides detailed information on most every country in the world, with entries on currency, transportation, climate, visa and passport requirements, sightseeing opportunities, etc. A primary book of knowledge for the professional travel agent.

Yield management – Calculating and analyzing the profits earned per customer.